PSG&T Cover Image

Processes in Structural Geology and Tectonics

Ben van der Pluijm - University of Michigan
Stephen Marshak - University of Illinois

ISBN: 978-1-5323-0282-4; v2.6.1
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2845.9126
© 2016-2019 The Authors and WW Norton


New Users: see Payment and Rates and FAQ

Preface [open access] - Organizational philosophy; Information for users; Design and online annotation (personal and PSGTusers); Search; About the authors; Supporting materials.
Table of Contents
[open access] - Access to chapter text requires a UserID and Password that are obtained by paying relevant charge (see details below).

Answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).
About Online Annotation.

Get Information Leaflet.

Units

1. Geologic Structures and Deformation Regimes
Depositional structures
Unconformities
Salt structures
Igneous/volcanic structures
Impact structures
Deformation structures
Deformation regimes (Frictional regime, Plastic regime)
Structural Analysis
Plate tectonics
Supplementary Material
Concept summaries
Reading
Stereonet software
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Geologic Structures (2019)

2. Force and Stress
Force and Units
Newtonian and continuum mechanics
2D and 3D stress
Stress ellipsoid
Stress relationships: normal stress and shear stress
Mohr construction for stress
Stress states
Measurement of stress (at surface, at depth)
Lithospheric stress
Supplementary Material
Terminology, Units and conversions
Mohr construction activity
Stress tensor
Stress trajectories
Reading
Stress software
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Force&Stress (2019)

3. The Frictional Regime
Processes of brittle deformation
Elasticity
Tensile cracking
Axial deformation experiments
Formation of shear fractures (faults)
Failure criteria (Mohr, Coulomb, von Mises)
Faults and stress
Stress and fault types: Andersonian theory
Frictional sliding
Friction criterion (Byerlee)
Stress and sliding
Role of fluid pressure
Supplementary Material
Terminology
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Frictional Regime (2019)

4. Joints and Veins
Surface features
Elasticity;
Joint arrays
Joint spacing
Origin of joints
Origin and history of veins
Syntaxial and antitaxial veins
En-echelon veins
Lineaments
Supplementary Material
Terminology
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Joints and Veins (2019)

5. Faults and Faulting
Fault types and geometries
Fault systems
Fault bends
Dimensions and Subsidiary faults
Fault surfaces
Fault rocks (Cataclasites, Mylonites, Pseudotachylytes)
Fault character with depth
More on mechanics of faulting
- Thrust paradox
- Thrust wedges
Faults and Society
Supplementary Material
Fault Types
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Faults and Faulting (2019)

6. Deformation and Strain
Deformation components
Strain ellipse (and ellipsoid)
Coaxial and non-coaxial strain
Strain path and superimposed strain
Strain quantities
Strain states
Representations of strain
Finite strain analysis
- Spherical objects
- Angular changes
- Length changes
Supplementary Material
Types of strain
Strain activity
Mohr construction for strain
Reading
Strain software
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Deformation and Strain (2019)

7. The Plastic Regime
Strain rate
Viscosity
Crystal defects (Point defects, Line defects/Dislocations)
Crystal plasticity
- Dislocation creep
- Glide
- Climb
Microstructures
- Twinning
- Recovery
- Recrystallization
Diffusional processes and microstructures
Deformation mechanism maps
Confusing Terminology?
Supplementary Material
Terminology
Crystal slip systems
Summary table
Calcite twinning analysis;
Deformation mechanism map activity
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Plastic Regime (2019)

8. Folds and Folding
Fold anatomy
Fold classification
Fold systems
Mechanics of folding
- Bending
- Buckling
- Fold (Biot) equation
Kinematics of folding
- Flexural folding
- Neutral-surface folding
Fault-related folds
- Fault-bend folding
- Fault-propagation folding
- Detachment folding
Superimposed folding
- Fold interference
- High-strain folding and transposition
Supplementary Material
Terminology
Dip isogons
Strain-modified fold (Biot-Ramberg) equation
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Folds (2019)

9. Fabrics and Fabric Elements
Foliations
- By metamorphic grade
- By morphology (cleavage, schistosity, gneissosity)
- (Axial plane) cleavage
Porphyroblastesis
Shear zones/Mylonites
- Shear sense indicators
Foliations and strain
Lineations
Supplementary Material
Terminology
Crystallographic fabrics
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Fabrics (2019)

10. The Lithosphere
What is rheology?
General rock creep behavior
Elastic, viscous and composite linear rheologies
- Maxwell relaxation time and Earth behavior
Insights from rock deformation experiments
- Pl, T, Pf, ê
Non-linear rheology
- Plastic flow stresses
- Crust and upper mantle strength curve(s)
Defining lithosphere and asthenosphere
- Lithologic vs rheologic layering.
Supplementary Material
Terminology
Rock creep parameters
Isostasy
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Lithosphere (2019)

11. Whole Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics
Earth’s layers
Earth’s topography
The crust
The mantle
The tenets of plate tectonics
- Today’s plates
- Plate boundaries
Kinematic of plate tectonics
- Linear and angular velocities
- Absolute and relative motions
Mechanics of plate tectonics
Tectonic cycles
- Wilson cycle
- Supercontinent cycle
Supplementary Material
Studying Earth's interior
Vectors and plate velocities
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Plate Tectonics (2019)

12. Extension Tectonics
Today’s divergent plate boundaries
- Ocean Ridges
- Lithologies (ophiolite)
Failed rifts
Structural styles of rifting
- Pure shear systems
- Simple shear systems
Stretching factor
Metamorphic core complexes (and isostasy)
Rift evolution and Passive margins
Causes of rifting and extension
Supplementary Material
Today's plates and boundaries
Terminology
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Extension Tectonics (2019)

13. Contraction Tectonics
Convergent plate margins
- Downgoing slab and Forebulge
- Trench
- Accretionary wedge
- Forearc basin and volcanic arc
- Backarc region
Stages of collision (Convergence-Suturing-Thickening-Collapse-Delamination)
Structures of collision
- Fold-thrust belts
- Fold-thrust kinematics
Related processes
- Extrusion tectonics
- Terrane accretion
Orogenic architecture
- Synoptic cross-sections
- Curved orogens (oroclines)
Speculations on orogenic style
Supplementary Material
Terminology (incl fold-thrust belts)
Balanced cross-sections
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Contraction Tectonics (2019)

14. Wrench Tectonics
Classes of strike-slip faults
- Transfer faults
- Transcurrent faults
Strike-slip systems
- Transpression and transtension
- Restraining and releasing bends
- Strike-slip duplexes
Continental strike-slip faults
Oceanic strike-slip faults
- Transform faults
- Fracture zones
Supplementary Material
Terminology
Reading
Lecture Presentation (PDF) - Wrench Tectonics (2019)

15. A Global View and Regional Essays (open-access PDF version)
Global deformation patterns
What can we learn from regional perspectives?
Some speculation on contrasting orogenic styles
Essays: Experts explore major tectonic settings around the world. Instead of offering comprehensive reviews, these essays aim to capture the excitement of regional geology and to inspire further exploration.
Reading
Lecture Presentation
(PDF)
- Time, Place and Tectonics (2016)

Additional Material

Lecture Presentations - PDF versions of topical PowerPoint presentations (by year). PDFs open with an annotation overlay that allows for private and permanent user markup (after registration with Hypothes.is; see http://psgt.earth.lsa.umich.edu/0/preface.html#Annotation). Users of all or parts of this freely available material agree to appropriately reference the source. Instructors have access to .pptx originals after text adoption (email request to procsgt@gmail.com).

Payment and Rates

PayPal accepts credit/debit cards and bank payments from around the world. Pricing in US$ is based on World Bank economic designations, which can be found at http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-and-lending-groups.

Select the appropriate nation-income economy
on the drop-down menu on the right:
High
(=default; for example, US, Canada, W. Europe, Oceania);
Middle (including Upper- and Lower-Middle; for example, Mexico, India, Nigeria, China);
Low (for example, Haiti, Nepal, Niger).

PayPal emails a confirmation upon payment. Once received, ID+password access details for full text chapters for a 4-5 months period will be emailed (typically, within one weekday).
Include your email address with PayPal payment and check your Spam/Junk folder for missing confirmation and access emails (or whitelist procsgt@gmail.com).

Buyer Agrees to:
Buyer agrees to limit all access to PSG&T materials for personal use only, not to share login details, not to share copies of the material in any form. The pricing reflects this honor system.

Note to Instructors:
Limited-time examination access is available for potential class adoption; annually-renewed access is given upon adoption. Please email procsgt@gmail.com from a university email account with relevant info on your class(es), and, if available, weblink to course catalog.
NEW: Instructors can obtain a single access license for a class when paying students' fees. Same rates, same honor system (1 fee/student); minimally 8 students (e.g., 9 US students in a class is $90). Contact procsgt@gmail.com for details (payment at https://www.paypal.me/PSGT)

Select Nation-Income Economy

Use correct nation-income economic designation price to avoid a refund fee and time to reorder; all orders are checked for source country.

ISBN 978-1-5323-0282-4

! SORRY, NO RETURNS !

Email: procsgt@gmail.com (reaches Ben van der Pluijm)
Website: http://psgt.earth.lsa.umich.edu/

© 2016-2019 The Authors and WW Norton Last Update: 22-Nov-2019