PSG&T Cover Image

Processes in Structural Geology and Tectonics

Ben van der Pluijm - University of Michigan
Stephen Marshak - University of Illinois

ISBN: 978-1-5323-0282-4; v2.0.1
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2845.9126
© 2016-2018 The Authors and WW Norton


New Users: see Payment and Rates and FAQ
Preface [open access] - Organizational philosophy; Information for users; Design and online annotation (personal and PSGTusers); Search; About the authors; Supporting materials.
Table of Contents
[open access] - Access to chapter text requires a UserID and Password that are obtained by paying relevant charge (see details below).
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).
About Online Annotation.
Get 2017 Information Leaflet.

Units

1. Geologic Structures and Deformation Regimes - Depositional structures; Unconformities; Salt structures; Igneous/volcanic structures; Impact structures; Deformation structures; Deformation regimes (Frictional regime, Plastic regime); Plate tectonics.
Supplementary Material - Concept summaries; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Structures (2016) - Structures (2017)
2. Force and Stress - Force and Units; Newtonian and continuum mechanics; Trigonometry; 2D and 3D stress; Normal stress and shear stress; Mohr construction for Stress; Stress states; Measurement of stress (at surface, at depth); Lithospheric stress states.
Supplementary Material - Terminology, Units and conversions; Mohr construction activity; Stress tensor; Stress trajectories; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Force&Stress (2016) - Force&Stress (2017)
3. The Frictional Regime - Processes of brittle deformation; Tensile cracking; Axial deformation experiments; Formation of shear fractures; Failure criteria; Faults and stress; Andersonian theory; Frictional sliding; Byerlee’s law; Stress and sliding; Role of fluids.
Supplementary Material - Terminology; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Frictional Regime (2016) - Frictional Regime (2017)
4. Joints and Veins - Surface features; Elasticity; Joint arrays; Joint spacing; Origin of joints; Origin and history of veins; Syn- and anti-taxial veins; En echelon veins; Lineaments.
Supplementary Material - Terminology; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Joints&Veins (2016) - Joints&Veins (2017)
5. Faults - Fault types and geometries; Fault systems; Fault bends; Dimensions; Fault surfaces; Fault rocks (Cataclasites, Mylonites, Pseudotachylytes); Fault character with depth; More on mechanics of (reverse) faulting; Thrust paradox; Thrust wedges; Faults and Society.
Supplementary Material - Fault Types; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Faults&Faulting (2016) - Faults&Faulting (2017)
6. Deformation and Strain - Deformation components; Strain ellipse (and ellipsoid); Coaxial and non-coaxial strain; Superposed strain; Strain quantities; Representations of strain; Finite strain analysis (Spherical objects, Angular changes, Length changes).
Supplementary Material - Types of strain; Strain activity; Mohr construction for strain; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Deformation&Strain (2016) - Deformation&Strain (2017)
7. The Plastic Regime - Strain rate; Viscosity; Crystal defects (Point defects, Line defects/Dislocations); Crystal plasticity; Dislocation creep; Glide; Climb; Microstructures; Twinning; Recovery; Recrystallization; Diffusional processes and microstructures; Deformation mechanism maps; Confusing Terminology?
Supplementary Material - Terminology; Crystal slip systems; Summary table; Calcite twinning analysis; Deformation mechanism map activity; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Plastic Regime (2016) - Plastic Regime (2017)
8. Folds - Fold Description; Fold Classification; Dip isogons; Fold systems; Fault-related folds (Fault-bend folding, Fault-propagation folding, Detachment folding); Elements of fold style; Superposed folding; Bending and buckling; Fold mechanics and fold math; Fold strain.
Supplementary Material - Terminology; Dip isogons; Strain-modified Biot-Ramberg equation; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Folds (2016) - Folds (2017)
9. Fabrics and Fabric Elements - Foliations (By Metamorphic grade, Morphology, Porphyroblastesis, Strain); Shear zones (Shear sense indicators, Strain); Lineations; Boudinage.
Supplementary Material - Terminology; Crystallographic fabrics; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Fabrics (2016) - Fabrics (2017)
10. The Lithosphere - What is rheology?; Insights from rock deformation experiments; Characteristic stress-strain behaviors; General rock creep; Elastic, viscous and composite linear rheologies; Maxwell relaxation time and Earth behavior; Non-linear rheologies; Plastic flow stresses; Crust and upper mantle strength curve(s); Defining lithosphere and asthenosphere; Lithologic vs rheologic layering.
Supplementary Material - Terminology; Creep parameters; Isostasy; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Lithosphere (2016) - Lithosphere (2017)
11. Plate Tectonics - Earth’s layers; Earth’s topography; The crust; The mantle; The tenets of plate tectonics (Today’s plates, Plate boundaries); Kinematic of plate tectonics (Linear and angular velocities, Absolute and relative motions); Mechanics of plate tectonics; Tectonic cycles (Wilson Cycle, Supercontinent Cycle).
Supplementary Material - Studying Earth's interior; Vectors and plate velocities; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Plate Tectonics (2016) - Plate Tectonics (2017)
12. Extensional Tectonics - Today’s divergent plate boundaries (Ocean Ridges, Lithologies); Failed rifts; Structural Styles (Pure shear systems, Simple shear systems); Stretching factor; Metamorphic core complexes (and isostasy); Rift evolution (Passive margins); Causes of rifting and extension.
Supplementary Material - Today's plates and boundaries; Terminology; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Extensional Tectonics (2016) - Extensional Tectonics (2017)
13. Contractional Tectonics - Convergent plate margins (Downgoing slab, Trench, Accretionary wedge, Forearc basin and volcanic arc, Backarc region); Stages of collision (Convergence, Suturing, Thickening, Collapse, Delamination); Structures of collision (Fold-thrust belts, Fold-thrust kinematics); Related processes (Extrusion tectonics, Terrane accretion); Orogenic architecture (Synoptic cross-sections, Curved orogens); Speculations on orogenic style.
Supplementary Material - Terminology; Terminology of fold-thrust belts; Balanced cross-sections; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Contractional Tectonics (2016) - Contractional Tectonics (2017)
14. Wrench Tectonics - Classes of strike-slip faults (Transfer faults, Transcurrent faults); Strike-slip systems (Transpression, Transtension, Restraining and releasing bends, Strike-slip duplexes); Continental Strike-slip faults; Oceanic strike-slip faults (Transform faults, Fracture zones).
Supplementary Material - Terminology; Reading.
Lecture Presentation - Wrench Tectonics (2016) - Wrench Tectonics (2017)

15. A Global View and Regional Essays - Essays by experts that explore major tectonic settings around the world. Instead of offering comprehensive reviews, the essays aim to capture the excitement of regional geology and inspire further exploration. (PDF versions only)
Global Deformation Patterns; What Can We Learn from Regional Perspectives?; Some Speculation on Contrasting Orogenic Styles; Essays Outline; Reading.
Lecture Presentation
- Time, Place and Tectonics (2016)

Additional Material

Lecture Presentations - PDF versions of topical PowerPoint presentations by year (2016, 2017). PDFs open with an annotation overlay that allows for private and permanent user markup (after registration with Hypothes.is; see http://psgt.earth.lsa.umich.edu/0/preface.html#Annotation). Users of all or parts of this freely available material agree to appropriately reference the source. Instructors have access to .pptx originals after text adoption (email procsgt@gmail.com).
Hands-on Activities - A set of 3-hour laboratory activities are used in conjunction with lecture material, focusing on spatial skills (maps, sections, projections, etc) and applications of major concepts (stress/failure, strain, tectonics, etc). The activities are derived from multiple sources (old and new) and are only shared with instructors as an example set. They are not part of the PSG&T offering. Contact: vdpluijm@umich.edu.

Payment and Rates

PayPal accepts credit/debit cards and bank payments from around the world. Pricing in US$ is based on World Bank economic designations, which can be found at http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-and-lending-groups.
Select the appropriate nation income economy
on the drop-down menu on the right:
High
(=default; for example, US, Canada, W. Europe, Oceania);
Middle (including Upper- and Lower-Middle; for example, Mexico, India, Nigeria, China);
Low (for example, Haiti, Nepal, Niger).
Once payment is received, ID+password access details for full online text and supporting materials for a 4-5 months period will be emailed (typically, within one workday).
When ordering, please include University/Institute name, course number and preferred email contact address under "Add special instructions to the seller:"; for example, "Univ Michigan, Earth351, procsgt@umich.edu".

Buyer Agrees to:
Buyer agrees to limit all access to PSG&T materials for personal use only, not to share login details, not to share copies of the material in any form. The pricing reflects this honor system.

Note to Instructors: Limited-time examination access is available for potential class adoption; annually-renewed access is given upon adoption. Please email procsgt@gmail.com from a university email account with relevant info on your class(es), and, if available, weblink to course catalog.

Select Income Economy

Use the correct economic designation rate to avoid a refund fee and time to reorder; all orders are checked for source country.

ISBN 978-1-5323-0282-4

! SORRY, NO RETURNS !

Email: procsgt@gmail.com (reaches Ben van der Pluijm)
Website: http://psgt.earth.lsa.umich.edu/

© 2016-2018 The Authors and WW Norton Last Update: 14-Jun-2017